Economy FAQ

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Originally posted at the Paradox forums by Ironfoundersson, see here.

Information initially compiled by VKV. Additions and corrections starting at version 5 from Inigo Montoya, State Machine, Ironfoundersson, Mueller, ws2_32, Castellon, Coder, Robin74, Peter Ebbesen, DSYoungEsq and Chas

Definitions

Province Modifier:

Modifier in % computed for each province.

The base is 100%; the following modifications can apply:

  • Province Culture not Country culture: -30%
  • Province Religion not Country Religion: -30%
  • No Land Connection to Capital (through owned provinces): -2% * (Slider position land)
  • Country Stability: Stability = 2: +10%, Stability = 3: +20%
  • Revolt Risk: -5% * (Revolt Risk)
  • War taxes : +150%
  • State Religion
    • Hinduism: +5%
    • Protestantism: +10%
    • Buddhism: -20%
    • Confucianism: -20%
    • Shia Moslem: -20%
    • Reformist: -10%

The province modifier can never be lower than 0%

Multiplier Type 1:

For production and generated trade

TPs : Multiplier equal to (TP Level + 4)/10 : Level 1: x5/10, Level 2: x6/10, etc.) Colonies: Multiplier based on population:

  • 000-199: x1/10
  • 200-299: x2/10
  • 300-399: x3/10
  • ...
  • 900-999: x10/10

Towns: Multiplier based on population:

  • 1000-5000: x6/6
  • 5001-10000: x7/6
  • 10001-20000: x8/6
  • 20001-40000: x9/6
  • 40001-80000: x10/6
  • 80001-200000: x11/6
  • 200001-...: x12/6

Multiplier Type 2:

For Trade Tax

TP's: Multiplier equal to TP Level (Level 1: x1, Level 2: x2, etc.) Colonies: Multiplier based on population:

  • 000-199: x1
  • 200-299: x2
  • 300-399: x3
  • ...
  • 900-999: x9

Towns: Multiplier based on population:

  • 1000-5000: x10
  • 5001-10000: x11
  • 10001-20000: x12
  • 20001-40000: x13
  • 40001-80000: x14
  • 80001-200000: x15
  • 200001-...: x16


Yearly Province Revenue

Taxes:

  • Nothing for TP's and colonies
  • For cities: (Base province value + Taxation Public Officials) * Province Modifier
  • Taxation Public Officials: Tax Collector +1, Chief Judge +1

Production:

  • Nothing for TP's
  • (Multiplier type 1 based on province type and population) * (Basic Resource Price) * (production efficiency % + 1 [this +1 is a correction for a display bug, which may be fixed at a later date]) + Production Public Officials
  • Production Public Officials: Tax Collector +1, Governor +1

Trade Tax:

  • (Multiplier type 2 based on province type and population) * (Trade Efficiency % + 1 [this +1 is a correction for a display bug, which may be fixed at a later date])
  • No effect from structure or resource type.
  • Tool tip incorrectly states 12d is maximum; correct maximum is now 16d

Trade Tariffs:

For CoT province only

  • 3 * (Number of merchants in CoT)

Manufactories:

  • Fine Arts Academy +6 (unless in Capital +12)
  • Goods Factory +6 (unless in Cloth, Cotton, Tobacco +12)
  • Naval Equipment Factory +6 (unless in Fish, Naval Supplies +12)
  • Refinery +6 (unless in Sugar, Wine +12)
  • Weapons Factory +6 (unless in Copper, Iron +12)

Generated trade revenue:

  • (Multiplier type 1 based on province type and population) * (Market Price for Resource)

Gold Mines:

  • (Multiplier type 1 based on province type and population) * (Gold Income for Province) + Production Public Officials
  • Production Public Officials: Tax Collector +1, Governor +1
  • Note: Gold Income for Province can be referenced here

Country Revenue

Census Taxes (yearly)

  • Sum of all province Tax (see 1.1) multiplied by the census tax modification
  • Does not appear in income summary as it is directly added to treasury on 1st of January.
  • Census tax collection: minimum is 0, maximum is 1.
    • Province is a core province +0.25
    • Province has a tax collector +0.75
    • Each step of centralization + 0.025

Gold (monthly)

  • Sum of all province gold production / 12
  • Appears in income summary under "Gold mines"

Production (monthly)

  • Sum of all province Production / 12
  • Appears in income summary as "Production"

Taxation (monthly)

  • Sum of all province Tax / 12
  • Can include looting: when an enemy province is looted, the looter has a one-time gain of the looted provinces' base tax value.
  • If you are the vassal of another nation, this sum is divided by two (half of this revenue goes to your suzerain, see 2.8).
  • Appears in income summary in "Tax"

Tolls (monthly)

  • Sum of all province Trade Tax / 12
  • Appears in income summary in "Tax"

Trade (monthly)

  • Sum of all trade revenues from your merchants in CoT's / 12
  • Appears in income summary in "Trade"

Trade Tariffs (monthly)

  • Sum of all trade tariffs gained from your CoT's / 12
  • Appears in income summary in "Tax".

Vassals (monthly)

  • Sum of all the income you get from vassals. Each vassal gives you half of its monthly Taxation revenue (and not half of its total revenue!).
  • Appears in income summary in "Tax"

Loan Interests (monthly)

  • If you have lend money to other countries, the monthly revenue (yearly cost / 12) is put directly into your treasury each month. So it can't be invested in research but this cash generates no inflation. See the Loans Summary page in the ledger to know the yearly cost of a loan.

Manufactories (monthly)

  • Sum of all province Manufactory incomes / 12
  • Appears in income summary in "Tax"

Display Bugs

The Income Summary Screen

On top of this screen is the revenue part that looks like:

Tax 		8 	(125%) 	10.0
Production 	6 	(33%) 	 2.0
Trade 		8 	(50%) 	 4.0

The numbers on the left are usually meaningless and they are computed from the numbers on the right. This is mainly true for the taxation number. As not all parts of this number are subject to the stability modifier (125% here), I think the number on the right is computed as the sum of the monthly taxation, tolls and trade tariffs, and then the number on the left is computed by dividing by 125%

Also, the numbers displayed in February (i.e. numbers that could be applied in January) are wrong, and so is the expected inflation in the budget window in January. The numbers displayed in the ledger seem to be right every time I double-checked them.

The Resource Information Screen

Under Production, there is a section that looks like:

Our Production: 	150 units
Infrastructure: 	21%
Our Production Income: 2.0

The last number is erroneous. The value is derived from the Infrastructure percent times the Basic Resource Price instead of Basic Price for Resource * Population Production Modifier * Infrastructure Modifier + Production Public Officials.

Goods Production in Februari

The game adds income from your manufactories to that of your "Production" when reporting "Goods Production" for the prior month. But in doing so, it truncates this income to the units level, so that monthly income of 2.5 ducats from manufactories only adds 2 ducats to the total in "Goods Production." In addition, the game posts manufactory income to the ledger on the first of the month for every month except January. In January, the income isn't posted until the change from Jan 30 to Feb 1. Somehow, this causes the game not to include the truncated manufactory income from January in the "Goods Production" total reported on Feb 1. You can see this easiest by looking at a save game file from Jan 1, Feb 1 and Mar 1.

Found by DSYoungEsq and reported in this post.

Tech costs

Chas did some excellent testing on the tech costs. The following is a summary of his findings, read this thread for a more detailed explanation. The change to the tech costs in the beta patches can be found here.

Tech cost formula

Tech costs are derived from a base value, with 6 multipliers. One of these multipliers is the sum of 4 modifiers. The following sections follow that pattern:


Base Value
 x ATM: Ahead of Time Multiplier
 x TSM: Tech Speed Multiplier, which is made up from:
    Religion modifier
    + Cities modifier
    + No Contact modifier
    + Whiteman modifier
 x TGM: Tech Group Multiplier
 x DPM: Domestic Policy Multiplier
 x DFM: Defender of Faith Multiplier
 x Inflation

There is no intermediate rounding the final value is displayed cut to whole d.

Base Value

BV's are derived from land.csv, infra.csv etc: BV = Price x Years

Price is based on the End Year for the level, increases linearly with end date, and is rounded to 0.5d.

Years = (End Year) - (Start Year)

The .csv files show the End Year and the Start Year. E.g extract from infra.csv

0  1419 This is the Start Year for researching level 2
1  1425 This is the End Year for researching level 2
2  1450
3  1495

In the tables below all the BV for the techs are given

Level    Infrastructure       Trade
  to      -------------- ----------------
research   BV       ATD      BV      ATD
---------  --------------  ---------------
   1       129               129
   2       783               783
   3      3400      1420    7100     1420
   4      6592.5    1445    3687.5   1470
   5      6220      1490    6260     1495
   6      5722.5    1530    4905     1535
   7      5115      1565    5115     1565
   8      7180      1595    7180     1595
   9     11610      1635   11610     1635
   10    10225      1695   10225     1695
                             Land and Naval
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Level                      Level                      Level
  to                         to                         to
research   BV       ATD    research  BV       ATD     research  BV      ATD
-------------------------   -----------------------    ----------------------
   1       129                21    1750      1605       41     816     1738
   2      1315                22     880      1615       42     613.5   1742
   3      2856      1424      23    1963.5    1620       43    1030     1745
   4      2092.5    1445      24    1444      1631       44    1035     1750
   5      1420      1460      25    2013      1639       45    1040     1755
   6      1440      1470      26     920      1650       46    1045     1760
   7      1465      1480      27    2812.5    1655       47    1052.5   1765
   8       294      1490      28    2865      1670       48    1057.5   1770
   9       147      1492      29    1935      1685       49    1062.5   1775
   10      592      1493      30    1759.5    1695       50    1070     1780
   11      897      1497      31     982.5    1704       51     214     1785
   12     1515      1503      32     987.5    1709       52     214.5   1786
   13     1854      1513      33     794      1714       53     645     1787
   14     1565      1525      34     398      1718       54     646.5   1790
   15      790      1535      35     399      1720       55     649.5   1793
   16      795      1540      36     600      1722       56     868     1796
   17     2437.5    1545      37     401      1725       57     872     1800
   18     3340      1560      38     603      1727       58     657     1804
   19     2557.5    1580      39     403      1730       59     219     1807
   20     1725      1595      40    1218      1732       60     439     1808


Ahead of Time multiplier

This is a multiplier to penalize research when researching a tech ahead of the Ahead of Time Date (ATD).

ATD = (Start Year) - 5

  • If current date is ATD (see table above) or later, then ATM = 1
  • Else ATM = 1.5 + (ATD - Current Date) x 0.1

Examples:

  • Researching Land 20 in 1595. The ATD for Land 20 is 1595, so the multiplier is 1, as it will also be if the current date is later than 1595.
  • Researching Land 20 in 1593. The multiplier is 1.5 + (1595 – 1593) x 0.1 = 1.7

Tech Speed Multiplier

TSM = 1 + (Religion Modifier) + (Cities Modifier) + (Isolation Modifier) + (Whiteman Modifier)

  • It cannot be less than x1; if the sum of the modifiers is negative, then x1 is substituted.
  • The sum of the Religion and Cities modifiers cannot be greater than +3.0, if it is, +3.0 is substituted.

Religion modifier

Protestantism     -0.02
Reformed          -0.04
Counterreform     +0.06
Catholicism       +0.02
Orthodox          +0.02
Sunni             +0.02
Shiite            +0.06
Paganism          +0.50
Confucianism      +0.20
Buddhism          +0.10
Hinduism          +0.20

Note:

  • These figures are derivable from the Tech Speed column of religion.csv. This shows Tech Speed in 'points'; each 'point' is worth -0.02 for the modifier. e.g the file shows Catholicism as -1, which translates to +0.02 for the modifier.

Cities Modifier

1     +0
2     +0.2
3     +0.4
4     +0.5
5     +0.6
6     +0.8
7     +0.9
8     +1.0
>8    +1.0  + 0.025 per city over 8

Note:

  • 'Cities' excludes colonies of level 9 and below, and TP's. The number can be counted from page 31 of the ledger. More info can be found in Tech costs are FAQed up a bit thread by mueller

Isolation Modifier

Modifier = +0.2 for each country less than 19 that you know, applies to all countries.

Note: the number of countries you know can be counted from the Relationships screen. There are 10 countries on a full page.

Whiteman modifier

This only applies to North American and South American native countries. If Whiteman > 4, modifier = 0. Else, modifier = (5 - Whiteman) x 2

Notes:

  • Whiteman starts at 0 for relevant countries, so that gives a modifier of +10, and therefore a Tech Speed Multiplier of at least 11.
  • Whiteman increases by 1 for each interaction with non-American countries e.g. each DoW (in either direction), merchants placed in non-American CoTs etc. When it reaches 5, the effect of this modifier is eliminated.
  • Your Whiteman figure can only be viewed in the save file.

For more information on the No Contact Modifier and the Whiteman Modifier check No contact modifier effects all nations: Learn to keep tech costs low. thread by ws2_32

Examples of combining the modifiers to give the Tech Speed Multiplier

               Hanover 1617       Iroquois 1419          Russia 1795
           --------------------   --------------     -------------------
Religion       Protestant   -0.02   Pagan    +0.5      Orthodox      +0.02
Cities             1         0        6      +0.8         88         +3.0
                         ------            ----                    -----
Subtotal                    -0.02            +1.3                    +3.0
No contact       >18 known   0      4known   +3.0       >18 known     0
Whiteman     Not applicable  0        0     +10.0     Not applicable  0
                          =====           =====                    ====
Total                       -0.02           +14.3                    +3.0
                          ____            _____                    ____
TSM                         x1.0            x15.3                    x4.0

Notes:

  • For Hannover, the multiplier would be x0.98, but cannot be below x1. So the benefit of the Protestant bonus is lost - but if Hannover had one more city, the benefit would apply.
  • For Russia, the subtotal modifier would be +3.02, but cannot be above +3.0. The effect of the capping is that generally cities over 80-90 do not add to the TSM - the exact limit depends on your religion.

TGM: Tech Group Multiplier

Latin     x1
Orthodox  x1.1
Muslim    x1.2
China     x1.4
Exotic    x1.9

Notes:

  • The Tech Group cannot be read from within the game but is shown in country.csv
  • The multiplier values are hard-coded within the program.

DPM: Domestic Policy Multiplier

Two sliders affect Tech Costs: Centralisation and Innovation. DPM = 1+ (sum of effects)/100

Slider
Setting  Centralisation  Innovation
-------  --------------  ----------
 0       +10              +15
 1       +8               +12
 2       +6                +9
 3       +4                +6
 4       +2                +3
 5        0                 0
 6       -2                -3
 7       -4                -6
 8       -6                -9
 9       -8               -12
10      -10               -15

Example: Tuscany in 1419 has Centralisation at setting 1 and Innovation at setting 4. DP Multiplier = 1 + (8+3)/100 = x1.11

DFM: Defender of Faith Multiplier

If you have claimed the title Defender of the Faith, DFM = x1.15, otherwise, multiplier = 1

Inflation Multiplier

If inflation = 3.1%, multiplier = x1.031

Examples of total tech cost

All for Land 31.

Country             Hannover            France               Iroquois
               -------------------  -------------------  ------------------
BV                         982.5              982.5                  982.5
ATM (ATD= 1704)   1710      x1         1700    x1.9          1750     x1
 Religion       Prot        -0.02    Cath        +0.02    Pagan         +0.5
 Cities           1          0        30         +1.55     10           +1.05
 No contact      >18         0       >18          0       Know 4        +3.0
 Whiteman         -          0        -           0         0           +10.0
TSM                         x1                 x2.57                 x15.55
TGM               Latin     x1        Latin    x1            Exotic   x1.9
DPM              -10/-15    x0.75      0/0     x1           +10/+15   x1.25
DFM                 -       x1         Yes     x1.15           -      x1
Inflation           0%      x1         10%     x1.1           35%     x1.35
                        ----                ----                  ----
Tech cost                 736                 6068                  48984

Stability cost

Stability and stability cost is discussed in its own article.

The change to the stability cost in the betas are documented here by Chas.

Monthly Investments

Land tech

Invested each month: Budget + (Monarch MIL skill) + (5 ducats per Weapon Manufactory) + (Neighbour bonus)

Naval tech

Invested each month: Budget + (Monarch MIL skill) + (5 ducats per Naval Equipment Manufactory) + (Neighbour bonus)

Stability

Invested each month: Budget + (Monarch ADM skill * 2) + (5 ducats per Fine Art Academies) - (Base war exhaustion)

Trade

Invested each month: Budget + (Monarch ADM skill) + (5 ducats per Refinery) + (Neighbour bonus) - (Trade Embargoes above the Free Trade Refusal Limit)

Infrastructure

Invested each month: Budget + (Monarch ADM skill) + (5 ducats per Goods Manufactory) + (Neighbor bonus)

Notes:

  • The neighbor bonus is discussed in its own article.
  • When a tech tree is finished (ie level 60 is reached for land and naval tech, level 10 is reached for trade and infrastructure or when at +3 stability) the budget slider for that tech automatically resets to 0 while the other tech investment sources (from monarch skill, manufactories and neighbour bonus) are "lost"; they are not reinvested elsewhere, nor gained as extra income.
  • When +3 stability is reached the amount of invested that is too much is saved and can be used the next time stability is lowered. This amount can decrease due to war exhaustion disinvestments.

Trade and Production Efficiencies

Trade efficiency and production efficiency are discussed in separate articles.