A revolt is a kind of built-in event where a rebel-controlled province declares independence of its former owners and forms a new country. A revolt is distinct from a rebellion (rebels pop up), although many players use the terms interchangeably.
Causes of Revolts
There are two ways in which revolts can be caused. The normal way is for a province to be left rebel-controlled for a several years. However, there is a second way: via government collapse. In both cases, only rebel-controlled provinces are affected. Also in both cases, checks for occurance of revolt and government collapse happen only at month's end.
When a province has been rebel-controlled for a long time, it may revolt. This can happen if the following conditions are all true:
- The province has been rebel-controlled for more than 30 months, plus 1.2 months for each click of Centralization that its owning country has. So at Centralization 10, it can't revolt until the 43rd month.
- The province is in the "minimum" province list for at least one country which does not currently exist, as seen in the file revolt.txt.
- All other preconditions encoded in revolt.txt must be met. The country must not have a "revolt = no" line. The game date must allow that country to exist, as per the "date" and "expirydate" lines. There must be no existing country on the "no" list for the nation.
Even when all of the conditions above apply, there is still only about a 50-75% chance per province per month that a revolt will take place from that province. Also, no more than one country will declare independence per month due to province revolt.
When a government collapses, all of its provinces that can revolt, do. The preconditions for revolt are the same as for normal revolts, except that there is no requirement for length of occupation by rebels. This can create many new countries all at once.
The main effect of a revolt is creating the new country; however, there are a few other effects as well.
New Country Formation
When a province revolts, a new country is created. In addition to the revolting province, other provinces may join the new country. Only provinces in the new country's "minimum" and "extra" lists (in revolt.txt) may join. All provinces joining may be currently owned by any country, but they must be rebel-controlled (no matter what length of time). The "minimum" provinces have no additional conditions - they all join if rebel controlled. The "extra" provinces join only if they are adjacent to a province that has already joined. Addition of "extras" is done iteratively: starting with the set of "minimum" provinces joining, adjacent "extra" provinces are added repeatedly until no more join.
All provinces joining a revolting country cease to be rebel-controlled. They become owned and controlled by the new country. Other attributes of the new country are set according to the normal process of new country creation.
Parent Country Effects
If an existing country's capital province joins a revolt, then its capital will be moved to some other owned (not necessarily controlled) province. This appears to be done via province number only, using the lowest-numbered province, so occasionally you'll see a capital in America that is a bit odd there. If there is no other province to move to, the parent country is eliminated. This happens fairly frequently with several German minor countries.
In a normal revolt (not a government collapse), the new country automatically declares war against the parent country (or countries). The parent country's allies often dishonor its alliance when this happens.
Note that the check for province defection is performed after the check for revolt, but before the new country declares war on the old. Thus, a province that has been rebel-controlled but unable to defect or revolt may defect to a revolting country in the same day it revolts.
The parent country usually loses some badboy for provinces joining the revolt, but not always.