"Whiteman" is a value that represents contact with the world. Both countries and provinces have a whiteman value associated with them.
Whiteman for Countries
For countries, "whiteman" is an integer representing the level of contact a native American country has had with countries from the rest of the world.
Initial Values and Changes to Whiteman
In the 1419 scenario, all countries start with a value of zero for their whiteman. (Low whiteman does not affect non-American countries, but if you look in a savefile their value is zero.) When new countries are created, they get the value 100 for whiteman.
For non-American countries, whiteman has no effect. For American countries, whiteman increases by one whenever:
- They declare war on a non-American country, or join into a war against non-Americans in a way other than being invited into an alliance from a nation at war.
- They are invited into an alliance that is at war with a non-American country. Joining the alliance at war does not further increase whiteman; but rejecting entering the war allows further invitations which would increase whiteman by one for each invitation even though they may be invitations to the same war.
- They successfully send a merchant to a non-American owned center of trade.
Effects of Whiteman
There are several effects on an American country when its whiteman value is less than 5:
- its tech costs in all fields have has a severe penalty: the modifier is (5 - Whiteman) x 2. For pagans this can make tech as much as 7.75 times as expensive as it would be without the whiteman penalty, that is (1.48+10)/1.48 since 1.48 is the minimum tech speed multiplier for pagans.
whiteman tech cost modifier 0 10 1 8 2 6 3 4 4 2 5 or more 0
- it cannot build ships of any kind, regardless of its naval tech. Strangely, this rule does not appear to limit AIs, which happily build ships which they known of nowhere to move.
- it cannot build cavalry (there were no horses in America before European contact). Note that cavalry can still be gained by random events, if you are really lucky.
Once a country gets its whiteman up to 5, all "whiteman" penalties are gone. (Note that American countries have many other tech problems that are not related to whiteman: the isolation penalty, the exotic techgroup, and the pagan religion.)
In the game, there's no way to see what a country's whiteman value is. If it is building cavalry or ships, then you can be sure it has whiteman of at least 5. Be aware that random events include some events that give free cavalry, and these work for native Americans; thus, you will very occasionally see them with cavalry before they can build it. (In theory I think the same is true of free ship events, except that native American nations don't tend to get these events because they all have high Land domestic policies.)
The best way to determine a country's whiteman value is to save the game, then examine the savegame in a text editor. To find the country, it is usually easiest to search for its culture; a few lines below that in a savefile you'll see the whiteman value.
Provinces and Whiteman
All provinces also have a "whiteman" value. This value is a boolean, representing simply if a non-American army has set foot in that province. All non-American provinces start with the value "yes". American provinces all start with "no". If the value is "no", and there are natives in the province, then when a non-American army first enters the province, the number of natives will be quartered. (This effect models, in an very limited way, the decimation of native American populations from European diseases.) The value is then set to "yes"; thus, the population loss caused by disease happens only once.